A Multidimensional Analysis of Democratic Deficit by Components with Application in Albania during 2005 – 2014

  • Abstract:

    In the present study we develop a multidimensional model for democratic deficit, depending on 39 components. Our analysis is focused on responsiveness and congruence for each policy – responsiveness, and congruence for each policy – specific opinion. By responsiveness we mean the existence of a positive correlation between public opinion and state policy. By congruence we mean that the state policy actually matches majority preferences. Democratic deficit occurs when core democratic institutions, such as government, parliament, and political parties, in fact fall short of fulfilling the principles of democracy in their performance. Democratic deficit is an insufficient level of democracy in political institutions and procedures, in comparison with a theoretical ideal of democratic government. Democratic deficit encompasses distortions in random dynamical flows of influence from citizens to government, parliament, and political parties. Democratic deficit denotes the mean of the difference between satisfaction and aspiration of all citizens in a given democratic state during a specified period. Democratic deficit around the world is a random field in the sense of Modern Probability Theory. Any democratic state may potentially suffer from democratic deficit.
    Trust in political institutions (government, parliament, political parties) displays fluctuations over time and persistent contrasts among different branches of government within each specified democratic state.
    The voter preferences had a moderate impact to the state policy. The democratic state governments are on average 50% – 60% effective in translating majority opinion into state policy. The democratic state policy is more polarized than voter preferences. To estimate the state – level public opinion we apply Multilevel Regression and Post stratification method. Theoretical results are applied in Albania during the period 2005 – 2014.