Fortress Europe: The Dangers of Democratic Insecurities

  • Abstract:

    European radical parties are increasingly popular across the whole continent and the pan-European dimension of this trend requires a thorough analysis of this phenomenon. Also, rising politicisation of hitherto social movements like PEGIDA, proliferation of various forms of direct democracy (referenda, demonstrations, manifestations), and vigilante groups (like Soldiers of Odin) present both in the eastern and western part of the European Community begs for a deepened reflection regarding the drivers and determinants of these phenomena and decide whether radicalisation of European politics is a temporary occurrence or will it become a permanent feature of European political landscape due to structural reasons. This paper argues that the crisis of societal security (Buzan et al. 1998) manifests itself through a crisis of representative democracy (Rosanvallon 2008) institutions and mechanisms visible in “radicalisation of politics” taking forms of anti-establishment initiatives (radical parties, social movements, and vigilante groups) and various forms of direct democracy (referenda, manifestations, demonstrations).