Theories and Models of European Geopolitical Space Creation

  • Abstract:

    The study of the European geopolitical space is essential in today’s political and scientific discourse. The radical and rapid changes that took place at the turning point of the XX-XXI centuries made us look in the opposite way on the process of European unification. In this context, the study of theories and models of European geopolitical space creation becomes extremely important. The first theory of European geopolitical space unification was presented by Austrian researcher Richard Nikolaus Coudenhove Kalergi in 1922. The European continent was expected to be united on the basis of federation with its own constitution. The famous speech of Winston Churchill at the University of Zurich in September 19th 1948 when he called upon to establish the United States of Europe on the grounds of partnership between France and Germany, became the crucial moment in the process of European geopolitical space consolidation. The Schuman Declaration of 9 May 1950 was the first practical embodiment to create a new form of states organization in Europe. The geopolitical projects of French President Charles de Gaulle such as: ‘Europe from the Atlantic to the Urals’, ‘Europe of states’, as well as the concept of ‘Continental Unity of Europe’ became the new impulse for the further development of modern theories of European geopolitical space creation. However, in the 1970th the multistage politics acquired great importance in building of European geopolitical space. This period is famous for the theories of ‘Europe à la carte’ and ‘Europe of different speeds’. The political changes of the late 1980th and early 1990th and the hopes of some post – soviet countries to become members of the European Community were the key moments for the emergence of new theories and models of European geopolitical space consolidation. The ‘Common European Home’ was a concept created and espoused by the former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev in 1987. The idea of a ‘European Confederation’ was proposed by French President François Mitterrand in 1989. Nowadays, the theory of ‘Wider Europe’ developed by Michael Emerson is very popular in today’s political and scientific debates. The conceptual ideas of European unification require deep scientific analysis and further study.