Where Does the Europeanisation of CEEC Security Discourse Stop? A Case Study of Romania

  • Abstract:

    Europeanisation theory states that the appropriation of European values by aspiring countries works in two steps: first, the values are integrated on the discursive level – the Europeanisation of discourse; second, they become an inherent part of the country’s identity. This process has been more or less visible in all Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) during their integration, depending on the level analyzed. This paper argues that while market economy and good governance are goals that CEEC have been eager to achieve, Europeanisation has been less profound on the security and defence level, especially when it comes to countries bordering the EU space. The reasons for this are twofold: on one hand the CSDP has stalled due to a lack of political will, on the other it has not provided the security that bordering CEEC have been seeking. Lately, Russia’s aggressive actions at the EU border have been adding to their feeling of insecurity. Romania’s position with regard to CSDP specifically, and to European values on the security policy level generally, is reflective of this issue: while always stating that NATO and CSDP should avoid duplicating resources and type of activities, after its EU integration in 2007 Bucharest has been gradually shifting from the securitisation of asymmetric threats to an emphasis of regional conventional threats. This process has been enforced by declarations – in official statements as well as in strategic documents – that express frustration with regard the EU’s double standards when it comes to the promotion of values and norms in its Eastern neighborhood. The paper will show through the discourse analysis of Romanian security policy how this process – also present in other EU border countries – is relevant to the direction in which EU security policy might develop over the next years.